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Period is 40 weeks full content. Births at 28 weeks is considered as very preterm (extreme prematurity). Birth of a baby at 36 and 37 weeks is considered a moderate preterm births (borderline prematurity). This is important to consider because it regards a baby’s ability to adapt itself to the environment outside the womb. The more premature the baby, the more difficult for him to adjust himself as functional systems and organs are not mature yet.
Babies born at thirty-six weeks having a better chance to adapt itself to new environments when compared to babies born on the twenty-eight weeks. This is not surprising because the system is like a baby on the respiratory system, liver function, physical growth and nervous system, uro-jenital and skin are all still lacking. From the birth of the second stage of eight weeks will bring some difficulties for the baby.
Births at the twenty-eight weeks is usually fatal in infants. But since 20 years ago, g, technology and knowledge about infant care is very premature infants has increased rapidly. In the past, most babies born at twenty-eight weeks off the normal. Now most of them can be saved with modern technology. There are even baby care centers in the world who have managed to save babies born even at twenty-three weeks. However, it should be reminded that the more premature the baby is born, the more difficult for him to adjust to new surroundings. Without special treatment, the risk of death would be higher. The higher perinatal services in an area, the high rate of infant mortality. Developing countries certainly be recorded perinatal mortality rate is higher when compared with countries that have been developed.
Causes of Premature Birth
The break in the lining amonion case with early (premature rupture of membranes) and uterine muscle contraction (uterine contraction) can lead to premature births. There are also women who frequently expressed in the second trimester fetus because the cervix is not strong (cervical incompetence). This can be treated with an operation to strengthen the cervix.
Pregnant women who experience high blood (pre-eclamptic toxaemia), or a placenta that is not appropriate place (placenta praevia) is always a premature baby.
Uri may be torn from the uterine wall (abruptio-placenta) cause bleeding. If it occurs too early the baby may be born prematurely.
Sometimes the baby itself has to be born early because of circumstances such as Rhesus-isoimmunisation ‘in which red blood cells of the embryo splits quickly due to his mother’s antibodies into the fetal blood circulation. Fetal life may be threatened if he was not born earlier. This condition is more common in western countries.
Characteristics of preterm infants
From the physical characteristics and nerve babies are born prematurely, a doctor can determine the baby’s gestational age. The body is very premature babies is very gentle and not much moving. The skin on her body looks shiny, not like babies that look dismatur dry, thin-shelled berkupas. Fold the folded-ear easily. For baby boys, two eggs often can not be detected in the scrotal sac.
Premature babies quickly chills and if steps are not taken to maintain body temperature, this will lead to death.
Because veins are still immature nerves again, premature babies sucking milk is always difficult and requires other ways such as through a feeding tube nasogastik. As well as baby dismatur, premature babies are more prone to deficiency of glucose in the blood is always menggelentar or get fit. This is serious because it can cause brain damage that leads to physical and mental disabilities in the future
Premature babies simple yellow (jaundice). This is caused by the chemical bilirubin which can not be removed from the heart of the system as soon as possible because the function of this system has not matured yet. Premature babies can not stand the yellow. Chemical bilirubin easily penetrate the restrictions, called “blood brain barrier ‘to stick to the parts of the brain called the basal ganglia. As a result of premature babies will have cerebral palsy and hearing loss that can lead to speech problems in the future (kernicterus).
Premature babies prone to respiratory congestion or ‘respiratory distress syndrome’. This situation stems from the lack of materials called ‘surfactant’ is usually formed by the baby’s lungs themselves until the age of 34 weeks gestation. If the ‘surfactant’ shortage because too premature birth, the baby will be disturbed by breathing because oxygen can not be absorbed into the blood through the lungs.
Bluish or ‘cycnosis’ if allowed to continue to damage the baby’s brain.
Premature babies prone to infection such as infants dismatur. Doctors and nurses who care need to be careful to detect the early signs of infection so that immediate treatment can be arranged.
Treatment for premature babies
Treatment of an infant is based on problems that are to a baby. As baby dismatur, premature babies also need a viable treatment preferably given in hospitals that have expertise and tools needed. This is because these two groups of low birth weight babies have a higher risk of death than babies who are born premature have a medium-heavy weights. Treatment centers, special baby in developed countries like Europe, the United States and Japan have been successful, to save premature babies born as early as the beginning of the twenty-three weeks or have heavy weights in 500 grams (1 pound). This can only be achieved by using modern technology and high quality care.
Premature babies are born outside the hospital when the hospital would be in cold conditions. Cold will aggravate the baby quickly and complicate further treatment for him. Premature babies are born in the hospital will be treated in an incubator that maintained body temperature.
Babies who have ‘Respiratory Distress Syndrome requires sufficient oxygen – the oxygen level in the blood must not be too high nor too low because both conditions are dangerous to the baby. Devices that record information such as heart beat, breathing rate, blood pressure and body temperature can be attached to the baby’s chest. Baby’s blood should be checked from time to time to determine the materials, such as elektrolik, glucose and oxygen are not on the level that could jeopardize his life.
If yellow is detected, phototherapy must be started early so that the brain damage is so miserable baby. Yellowish dangerous levels should be treated with blood exchange (exchange transfusion) to prevent a condition called kernicterus.
Many premature babies can be saved with optimal care in neo-natal period without any interruption in the veins nerves.