Nephrotic syndrome is a nonspecific disorder which lead to kidney damage. The failure of the kidney filter to function well causes protein in blood plasma move into urine and reduce blood protein indirectly. The function of protein is to store excess fluid in bloodstream. When the protein decreases, the excess fluid will flow to body tissues and causes edema (swelling).
Most of patient of nephrotic syndrome do not show any significant physical symptoms. When the symptoms come around, patients will experience swelling of tissues around their eyes (periorbital edema), feet or ankles (peripheral edema). This sign can be found in early stage and can be happen in children and adults.
Next symptom is breatheless and it is because of excess fluid in lungs (pulmonary edema). If the symptom happen in patient of 65 and above, it is always to be said as misdiagnosed as heart failure. Otherwise, for children, the symptom can be misunderstood as allergy. most of cases from children ave no clear causes (nephrotic syndrome primary). According to renal biopsy examination, about 90% of children patients suffering from minimum changes nephrotic syndrome (MCNS). It shows that their renal system are in normal condition.
Other diseases that can causes nephrotic syndrome includes glomerulonephritis not associated with MCNS, systemic lupus eryhthematosus (SLE), Henoch Schonlein purpura, Hepatitis B and syphilis. Nephrotic syndrome can weaken the sufferer, their eyes and face become swelling during early in the morning, their feet swelling during evening, bloating, abdominal pain and diarrhea.
Few tests needed to examine if they suffer from nephrotic syndrome or not includes urine test. High protein level in urine indicated there is something wrong with their kidney. Then, blood test needed to examine electrolytes, protein, creatinine, and blood urine nitrogen level in their blood. This tests assist doctor if the patient suffer from nehprotic syndrome or there is other causes why protein left in urine.
Treatments given depends on what type of nephrotic syndrome they have. Like MCNS, common treatment using Prednisolone, a steroid to prevent protein leakage into urine. Other than that, diuretic drugs also help to reduce swelling and remove excess fluid. In a serious case, albumin given to replace protein that loss in the patient’s blood.
In addition, patient have to take adequate sources of protein to replace the lost protein in blood. However, higher protein level intake can damage tube that connected to kidneys because the kidney have to filter excess protein thus, your kidney become more worse. Sodium and fats intake should be reduced to prevent edema.
By any part of diseases, balance diet is much more important, whether to reduce or increase intake of natural sources.