An individual can suffer from either a permanent disability or a temporary disability. The definition of both is that a person cannot function as a “normal” individual. This means that their condition impairs their ability to function, take care of themselves, and complete everyday tasks.
A permanent disability is categorized as never getting better. A temporary disability is one that is expected to improve and not impair the person for more than a short period of time. A person can be temporarily disabled and never get better, at which time they would be re-categorized as permanently disabled.
The heading of disability is broken down into several types of disabilities, however, there are four main types that affect the majority of people deemed disabled.
- Physical Disability
This is defined by the inability to move limbs, either upper or lower limbs, and general mobility issues. This could include damage from a spinal cord injury which limits movement of part or all of the body.
Physical impairment of dexterity also falls under the physical disability title. When the connection between the brain and the movement of the body or the workings of organs that need to move blood and oxygen are impaired, this causes physical disability.
Individuals who use assistance when walking like crutches, wheelchairs, and/or a cane, can fall into this section.
- Cognitive Behavioral Disabilities
This group includes learning disabilities like Dyslexia, which is a problem with reading and writing; Dyscalculia, which is an issue with numbers and calculations and language processing disorder. This set also includes ADHD, which is an attention style disability.
The main factor in these types of impairments is with memory. Short-term, long-term and working memories are needed, either all together or separately, to overcome reading, writing, and language issues.
- Psychological Disabilities
This category is for mental health issues. A person can suffer from various mental health problems and be classified as a disabled person.
This classification includes different psychiatric problems such as Schizophrenia and Personality Disorders. It can also cover mental health issues like depression.
The majority of individuals are born with this type of impairment, although they may not be properly diagnosed until later in life. However, there are instances in which an individual will develop personality disorders, depression, and/or schizophrenia over time.
- Vision and/or Hearing Disabilities
An individual can be born with a hearing impairment in which they are partially deaf, or totally deaf. A person can also develop a hearing loss over time due to illness, genetics or an accident.
The same can be said for individuals with visual impairments. They can be born with total blindness or lose their sight over time.
A person with any of these disabilities can be either born with them or acquire them during adulthood. A child’s disability is a bit different to define and categorize if they are not born with a disability. In other words, if a child has an accident and becomes disabled due to the accident, it is handled differently for the purpose of categorizing their disability.