Chickenpox is caused by the varicella virus (the herpes virus) and is highly contagious. It occurs at all ages, usually in children. It is more severe in the event for adults. The spread is by contact or droplets from infected people. The spread also occur through contaminated material with liquid smallpox as in clothing or towels from people with chickenpox.
What is chickenpox
People with chickenpox can spread the virus for up to 48 hours before the rash appears and can continue to infect others until the chicken pox are dry and crusty. Shingles (herpes zoster) is infection from the same virus and occur in the future (the age of majority).
Signs and Symptoms
People with chickenpox will develop fever with red spots on the skin. Red spots areas involving the face, head, chest, back, and finally the whole body. Chickenpox rash will occur less than two weeks after infection occurs.
Red spots are just beginning to emerge in a few days and the number could reach hundreds of pieces and then create a bubble filled with water. When the bubble burst it filled crust. Moderate or severe itching causes patients to scratch and eventually lead to scarring.
Other symptoms are abdominal pain, loss of appetite, headache, discomfort, fatigue and disturbed. Sufferers also have a mild cough, runny nose 2 days before the red spots appear.
Chickenpox is reduced over a period of two weeks and usually no complications. Sometimes the disease can be severe even in healthy children and cause severe complications including death. Groups at risk for infections and severe complications:
* A newborn baby, whose mother does not penah suffering from chickenpox or chickenpox vaccination
* Expectant mothers cause effects on the unborn child as not enough weight and limb abnormalities can occur. If the mother is suffering from chicken pox a week before birth, it can cause serious and life-threatening infections in infants
* People who are weak or immune deficiency diseases such as HIV, cancer of the bone marrow (leukemia) and cancer patients in chemotherapy. People who take steroids prolonged asthma and nephrotic syndrome
* People with painful inflammation of the skin (eczema inflammation)
Complications from chicken pox:
* Skin infections – a red bruising, swelling and pain
* Dehydration from vomiting continuously or do not drink the water. Signs of dehydration are less urination, dry mouth and thirst
* Brain damage due to inflammation of the brain. Signs of encephalitis were severe headache, confusion, irritability, stiff neck and back hardens and becomes unconscious
* Inflammation of the joints – the joints become painful, stiff and swollen
* Infection of the lungs (pneumonia) – signs and symptoms such as cough, shortness of breath, breath sounds (wheezing) and chest pain.
Acyclovir or Immuno globulin used to treat chickenpox. Treatment is effective if taken within 24 hours immediately infected. It will reduce the severity and complications from chickenpox. All adults have the merit of early antiviral treatment of diseases, especially those who are less immune systems (elderly people, diabetics, people with HIV / AIDS and steroid treatment).
Complications from chickenpox, such as inflammation of the skin and lung inflammation requires antibiotic treatment. Patients who have inflammation of the brain to be admitted to hospital for anti-viral treatment.
Treatment at home
* Apply Calamine lotion
* Antihistamines reduce itching
* Panadol for fever
Vaccination provides life-long immunity, given at age 12-18 months. Grant of immunity under the age of 13 years of first dose, whereas after the age of 13 years is of two doses (intervals of 4-8 weeks between dose 1 and dose 2). Active immunization given to children at risk (between 1-5 years) if a family member have chicken pox.